Wednesday, May 9, 2012

why UML AND JANATAKO BAHUDALIYE JANABAD is against racial federalism.?

Madan Kumar Bhandari (Nepaliमदन कुमार भण्डार)
(June 271952 )– 1993) was a Nepali politician and great communist leader of Nepal.
He used Marxism creatively in Nepali context, and applied to build a new 21st century’s Marxism in Nepali politics-as PEOPLE’S MULTY PARTY DEMOCRACY.
Bhandari was born in Taplejung. He studied in VaranasiIndia and in 1972 was named central committee member of the Janabadi Sanskritik Morcha (Democratic Cultural Front), a student's movement launched by Pushpa Lal Shrestha. Around 1976 he leftPushpa Lal's Communist Party of Nepal to launch the Mukti Morcha Samuha ("Liberation Front Group"), which formed an alliance with the survivors of the Jhapa Movement in 1978. He was a founder member of the Communist Party of Nepal (Marxist-Leninist)preceding the 1980 referendum and was elected general secretary at its fourth national in 1986.
When CPN (ML) merged into Communist Party of Nepal (Unified Marxist-Leninist) in 1991, Bhandari became the general secretary. Bhandari was the engineer behind the programme of CPN (UML), People's Multiparty Democracy, which led his party as the strongest communist party of Nepal for several years even after his death.
In 1993 Bhandari died, supposedly in a car crash without anyone as eye witness. Many believe he was murdered. Among the three passengers inside the car, only the driver Amar Lama survived and two leaders Madan Bhandari and Jeev Raj Ashrit died. The then government formed a probe committee but officially the car crash was reported as an accident without any sign of conspiracy. Possible conspiracy again came into concern after the only survivor of that crash; Driver Amar Lama was murdered after about 10 years by unknown person.
His main contribution to communist movement of world and like Nepal is that he stressed to democritization for peaceful social change , and gaining  social achievement and he used Marxism creatively to form peoples’ multi-party democracy. It’s a great theoritical achievement in communist movement of world.
The old concept of communist  movement is only basing to war with bullet, which is breaked by him , showing that the organised people of communist party can ballet peacefully rather than forcefully immature so called peoples war( the war , less involement of general people volunteerly, low level of awarness and  without feasible circumstances) .
In context of Nepal ,the 10 years MAOIST’S peoples war ( around 15000 people were killed )  is lastly converted into 19th days successful peaceful movement of -2005-2006 ,held collaboration of various seven partieis including NEPALI CONGRASS, CPN (UML) ,CPN ( MAOIST ) and various 4 parties ( only around 25 people were killed ), which helps to establish Nepal as republic ( this is a sort of wining power of peaceful movemnts of communist parties with  collaboration of democratic forces  against  feudalistic-Monarchism .).

1.  He is an upholder of the principles of socialism and pursues the road of People's Multi-Party Democracy, which is a creative application of Marxism and Leninism in the Nepalese condition.
2.  Consolidation of democracy, strengthening people's sovereign rights, changing the socio-economic relation and acceleration of the economic development in the country are the major concerns of the Party.
3.  Periodical election and the government of the majority, pluralism, rule of law, human rights are other important elements of the People's Multi-Party Democracy.
4.   Economically self sustained society, quality education and health service, full employment and social security are important features of the Party program aiming to achieve the welfare state.
5.  The Party fully believes in the harmony and the unity among the people of all religions, castes, communities and ethnic groups living in different geographical regions of the country.
6.  The Party works against any discrimination based on race, religion, caste, ethnicity, sex and geographical region.

7. It restricts any sort of class over sensation e.g. racial conflicts/ religious conflicts( it restricts any racial or religious federalism in the country ). Should stop any sort of class over sensation, which leads any social and national conflict unnecessarily.Maoists  of Nepal ,are anti- communist – because – believing in any sort of racial federalism in the country is unscientific to any communist party ).

8. The world is  in a age of generalization or globalization,so talking about racial fedaralism is just going back to 15TH century’s isolated society .21st century is  the age of mobilization, immigration ,massive-integration of people ,socially,technically,economically, linguelly,and  culturally.Every thing will be mutual integrated and is being so narrow and try to divid or isolate a nation to in many slices is unscientific .Racial federalism helps to weak socialization and democratization in the nation.The cause of collapse of former USSR is just due to class over sensation(the slogan of racial liberation ) after 1990.
He believes that the material development of society should be closely linked with the spiritual enlistment of the people and it should be guided by the ideals of democracy and socialism.

Philosophy and Science

  • “Philosophy and science are not seperable but the interconnected things,both are needed for human society development , they mutually acts as  double Strands of DNA  and  sides of  a coinRight philosophy is regarded as essence of right science”.  R.K.Dhaugoda
·         The standard of the worth of philosophy as a world-view and methodology is the degree to which it is interconnected with life. This interconnection may be both direct and indirect, through the whole system of culture, through science, art, morality, religion, law, and politics. As a special form of social consciousness, constantly interacting with all its other forms, philosophy is their general theoretical substantiation and interpretation.
·         Can philosophy develop by itself, without the support of science? Can science "work" without philosophy? Some people think that the sciences can stand apart from philosophy, that the scientist should actually avoid philosophising, the latter often being understood as groundless and generally unclear theorising. The specific sciences like medical science cannot and should not break their connections with true philosophy.
·         Science and philosophy have always learned from each other. Philosophy tirelessly draws from scientific discoveries fresh strength, material for wide generalisations, while to the sciences it imparts the world-view and methodological im pulses of its universal principles.
·         Many general guiding ideas that lie at the foundation of modern science were first enunciated by the perceptive force of philosophical thought.. The idea of the existence of molecules as complex particles consisting of atoms was developed in the works of the French philosopher Pierre Gassendi and also Russia's Mikhail Lomonosov. Philosophy nurtured the hypothesis of the cellular structure of animal and vegetable organisms and formulated the idea of the development and universal connection of phenomena and the principle of the material unity of the world. Lenin formulated one of the fundamental ideas of contemporary natural science—the principle of the inexhaustibility of matter—upon which scientists rely as a firm methodological foundation.
·         The latest theories of the unity of matter, motion, space and time, the unity of the discontinuous and continuous, the principles of the conservation of matter and motion, the ideas of the infinity and inexhaustibility of matter were stated in a general form in philosophy as  theory of conservation of energy and matter.
·         Besides influencing the development of the specialised fields of knowledge, philosophy itself has been substantially enriched by progress in the concrete sciences. Every major scientific discovery is at the same time a step forward in the development of the philosophical world-view and methodology. Philosophical statements are based on sets of facts studied by the sciences and also on the system of propositions, principles, concepts and laws discovered through the generalisation of these facts. The achievements of the specialised sciences are summed up in philosophical statements. Euclidian geometry, the mechanics of Galileo and Newton, which have influenced men's minds for centuries, were great achievements of human reason which played 'a significant role in forming world-views and methodology. And what an intellectual revolution was produced by Copernicus' heliocentric system, which changed the whole conception of the structure of the universe, or by Darwin's theory of evolution, which had a profound impact on biological science in general and our whole conception of man's place in nature. Mendeleyev's brilliant system of chemical elements deepened our understanding of the structure of matter. Einstein's theory of relativity changed our notion of the relationship between matter, motion, space and time. Quantum mechanics revealed hitherto unknown world of microparticles of matter. The theory of higher nervous activity evolved by Sechenov and Pavlov deepened our understanding of the material foundations of mental activity, of consciousness. Cybernetics revealed new horizons for an understanding of the phenomena of information interactions, the principles of control in living systems, in technological devices and in society, and also the principles of feedback, the man-machine system, and so on. And what philosophically significant pictures have been presented to us by genetics, which deepened our understanding of the relationship between the biological and the social in man, a relationship that has revealed the subtle mechanisms of heredity.
·         The creation and development by Marx, Engels and Lenin of the science of the laws of development of human society, which has changed people's view of their place in the natural and social vortex of events, holds a special place in this constellation of achievements of human reason.
·         It ts important to notion here,If we trace the whole history of natural and social science, we cannot fail to notice that scientists in their specific researches, in constructing hypotheses and theories have constantly applied, sometimes unconsciously, world-views and methodological principles, categories and logical systems evolved by philosophers and absorbed by scientists in the process of their training and self-education. All scientists who think in terms of theory constantly speak of this with a deep feeling of gratitude both in their works and at regional and international conferences and congresses.
·         So the connection between philosophy and science is mutual and characterised by their ever deepening interaction.Hence to understand contempory sciecnce, firstly it is essnential to understand contemporary philosophy and vice versa.
·         Some people think that science has reached such a level of theoretical thought that it no longer needs philosophy. But any scientist, particularly the theoretician, knows in his heart that his creative activity is closely linked with philosophy and that without serious knowledge of philosophical culture the results of that activity cannot become theoretically effective.
·         Real scientists, and by this we usually mean scientists with a powerful theoretical grasp, have never turned their backs on philosophy. Truly scientific thought is philosophical to the core, just as truly philosophical thought is profoundly scientific, rooted in the sum-total of scientific achievements Philosophical training gives the scientist a breadth and penetration, a wider scope in posing and resolving problems. Sometimes these qualities are brilliantly expressed, as in the work of Marx, particularly in his Capital, or in Einstein's wide-ranging natural scientific conceptions, theory of relativit,in Taketani, in there stage theory of cognition of sub atomic particles.
·         The common ground of a substantial part of the content of science, its facts and laws has always related it to philosophy, like rkdhaugoda’s key law of dialectics particularly in the field of the theory of knowl edge, and today this common ground links it with the problems of the moral and social aspects of scientific discoveries and technical inventions.. In ancient times, as we have seen, nearly every notable scientist was at the same time a philosopher and every philosopher was to some extent a  scientist.
·         The connection between science and philosophy has endured for thousands of years.
·         For example, philosophy and physics were at first organically interconnected, particularly in the work of Galileo, Descartes, Kepler, Newton, Lomonosov, Mendeleyev and Einstein, and generally in the work of all scientists with a broad outlook.
·          At one time it was commonly held that philosophy was the science of sciences, their supreme ruler.
·         Philosophy may be called the "science of sciences" probably in the sense that it is, in effect, the self-awareness of the sciences and the source from which all the sciences draw their world-view and methodological principles, which in the course of centuries have been honed down into concise forms. As a whole, philosophy and the sciences are equal partners assisting creative thought in its explorations to attain generalising truth.
·          Philosophy does not replace the specialised sciences and does not command them, but it does arm them with general principles of theoretical thinking, with a method of cognition and world-view. In this sense scientific philosophy legitimately holds one of the key positions in the system of the sciences.
·         Ignorance of philosophical culture is bound to have a negative effect on any general theoretical conclusions from a given set of scientific facts. One cannot achieve any real theoretical comprehension, particularly of the global problems of a specialised science, without a broad grasp of inter-disciplinary and philosophical views.for example failure of modern medical science to treat so many diseases(HTN,diabetes,AIDS, BIRD FLUE,CANCERS,MANY AUTO IMMUNE DISEASES LIKE R.A.,SLE,Psoriasis;and  severe sepsis, rabies,MDR-TB,tetanus,many viral diseases so on)
·         The desire to ignore philosophy is particularly characteristic of such a trend in bourgeois thought as positivism, whose advocates have claimed that science has no need of philosophy. Their ill-considered principle is that "science is in itself philosophy.” That’s why modern medince crisis has been appeared more and more, ,what is the cause of R.A.? is there specific answer?  The crisis of AIDS IN THE WORLD,is there any reliable solutions so far ? They can not give answers by so called scientists without knowledge of dialectical philosophy
·          But it tries to give answers for above questions “ In this book , by the R.K.Dhaugoda’s theory of vasculitis ”.which has been formulated with the help of  the guide line principle and philosophy  and methodology as  dialectical materialism
·         .It is as impossible to get rid off philosophy as it is to rid oneself off all convictions. Philosophy is the regulative nucleus of the theoretically-minded of individual and society. Philosophy takes its revenge on those who dissociate themselves from it. This can be seen from the example of a number of scientists who after maintaining the positions of crude empiricism and scorning philosophy have eventually fallen into mysticism. For example Malthus’s theory on population.
·         Particularly in the present age, when knowledge has formed an extremely ramified system. Suffice it to say, for example, that medicine alone comprises some 300 specialised branches. Medicine has "scalpelled" man into hundreds of little parts, which have become the targets of independent investigation and treatment.In current  capitalistic and  positivist’s medical system,there is not such a method or philosophy which makes innerconnections of interdiciplines(300 SPECIALISED branches of medicine) as well as  outerdicipline fields( biology, meditation and other various alternative medical practices, chemistry, sociology etc)
·         By means of philosophy the human reason synthesises the results of human knowledge of nature, society, man and his self-awareness, which gives people a sense of freedom, an open-ended view of the world, an understanding of what is to be found beyond the limits of his usual occupation and narrow professional interests. If we take not the hacks of science but scientists on the big scale, with a truly creative cast of mind, who honestly, wisely and responsibly consider what their hands and minds are doing, we find that they do ultimately realise that to get their bearings in their own field they must take into consideration the results and methods of other fields of knowledge.
·         Max Born, one of the creators of quantum mechanics, provides us with a vivid example of this process. He had a profound grasp of physical thought illumined by philosophical understanding of his subject. He was the author of many philosophical works and he himself admitted that the philosophical implications of science had always interested him more than narrow specialised results. After Einstein he was one of the first of the world's leading scientists to realise the ineffectiveness of positivism's attempts to act as a basis for understanding the external world and science and to deny this role to philosophy.
·         The philosophical approach enables us to overcome the one-sidedness in research which has a negative effect in modern highly specialised scientific work e.g. modern medical science and its patterns of applications and its onesideness and its failureness. For example, natural science today is strongly influenced by integrative trends. It is seeking new generalising theories, such as a unitary field theory, a general theory of elementary particles, a general theory of systems, a general theory of control, information, and so on. Generalisations at such a high level presuppose a high degree of general scientific, natural-humanitarian and also philosophical culture. It is philosophy that safeguards the unity and interconnection of all aspects of knowledge of the vast and diversified world whose substance is modern medical science we should seek for such a  general theory like rkdhaugoda’s key law of dialectics and rkdhaugoda’s general theory of vasculitis to overcome or  make innerconnections of interdiciplines(300 SPECIALISED branches of medicine) as well as  outerdicipline fields( biology, meditation and other various alternative medical practices, chemistry, sociology etc)
·         The intensive development of modern science, which by its brilliance has tended to hide other forms of intellectual activity, the process of its differentiation and integration, gives rise to a vast number of new problems involving world-view and methodology. For example, do any extra terrestrial civilisations exist and is there life in other galaxies? How did the universe arise in its given qualitative determinacy? What is meant by the infinity of space and time? Certain fields of knowledge constantly run into difficulties of a methodological nature.

·         The right Philosophy helps us to achieve a deeper understanding of the social significance and general prospects of scientific discoveries and their technical applications in more asthetic form  and helps to apply it for the benefit of general people of world. Thus the question of the nature of philosophy is very important to stand  for the benefit of general people(dialectical materialistic philosophy – a  Scientific philosophy) or  to stand against the benefit of general people of world (metaphysics ,idealistic,positivistic philosophy- which empowers the energy of  oppertunistic capitalistic and imperilistics groups of people)

What is dialectics?
It is the holistic- philosophy, science and methodology.

1.      Dialectical Philosophy teaches how to think as a world veiw.
2.      Dialectical Philosophy has its own universal method to aquire knowledge, “Philosophy cannot borrow its method
from a subordinate science, such as mathematics”
3.      Dialectical Philosophy is a logical science.Its process is the scientific, logical and rational, rather empirical one.
4.      Dialectics deals not only with facts, but with facts in their connection, i.e. processes, not only with isolated ideas, but with laws, not only with the particular, but with the general.
5.      Dialectical thinking stands in the same relationship to metaphysics as a motion picture to a still photograph.
6.      Trotsky, in his ABC of Materialist Dialectics characterised the dialectic as "a science of the forms of our thinking insofar as it is not limited to the daily problems of life but attempts to arrive at an understanding of more complicated and drawn-out processes." He compared dialectics and formal logic (metaphysics) to higher and lower mathematics.
7.       The most important laws of dialectics: Quantity and quality, the interpenetration of opposites and negation of the negation.
8.       Quantity and quality-"In spite of all gradualness, the transition from one form of motion to another always remains a leap, a decisive change". (Engels, Anti-Dühring.)
9.      Dialectics is the science of inter-connections, in contrast to metaphysics which treats phenomena as separate and isolated. Dialectics seeks to uncover the countless threads, transition, cause and effect which bind together the universe. The first task of a dialectical analysis is therefore to trace the "Necessary connection, the objective connection of all the aspects, forces, tendencies etc., of the given sphere of phenomena". (Lenin, Philosophical Notebooks, p. 97.)
10.     Dialectics approaches a given phenomenon from the point of view of itsdevelopment, its own movement and life; how it arises and how it passes away; it also considers the internal contradictory tendencies and sides of this thing.
11.      Motion is the mode of existence of the entire material universe. Energy and matter are inseparable. Furthermore, motion is not imparted "from without", but the manifestation of the internal tensions that are inseparable not only from life, but from all forms of matter. Development and change takes place through internal contradictions. Thus dialectical analysis begins by laying bare by empirical investigation the inner contradictions which give rise to development and change.
12.     Motion itself is a contradiction between being in the same place and somewhere else at the same time. The contradictory nature of the thing itself. The contradictory forces and tendencies in each phenomenon.
13.     The law of the negation of the negation deals with the nature of development through a series of contradictions, which appear to annul, or negate a previous fact, theory, or form of existence, only to be later negated in its turn. Motion, change and development thus moves through an uninterrupted series of negations.Negation is partial, in this sense, is both a positive and a negative shows  the process of development from lower to higher, an evolution in which the same forms may repeat themselves, but on a higher level, enriched by previous developments.
Dialectics can be also undertood as following simply,
1. The art or practice of arriving at the truth by the exchange of logical arguments.
a. The process especially associated with Hegel of arriving at the truth by stating a thesis, developing a contradictory antithesis, and combining and resolving them into a coherent synthesis.
b. Hegel's critical method for the investigation of this process.
a. The Marxian process of change through the conflict of opposing forces, whereby a given contradiction is characterized by a primary and a secondary aspect, the secondary succumbing to the primary, which is then transformed into an aspect of a new contradiction. Often used in the plural with a singular or plural verb.
b. The Marxian critique of this process.
4. Dialectics -A method of argument or exposition that systematically weighs contradictory facts or ideas with a view to the resolution of their real or apparent contradictions.
5. The contradiction between two conflicting forces viewed as the determining factor in their continuing interaction.
6. In summary- according to dr. rkdhaugoda of Nepal - Dialectics is the dynamic reciprocal relationship of outer opposite sets of phenomena with inner other opposite set of phenomena relatively.It is called “rkdhaugoda’s key law of dialectics”
æs'g}klg OsfO{, k|0ffnL, k|s[of, 36\gf, a:t', ljrf/ , k|fs[lts lgod cflb s'/fx?df aflx/L ljkl/t tTjx? Pj+ 36\gfx?sf] ;fk]IfLs cg'kflts ;DaGw km]l/ csf]{ leqL ljleGg ljkl/t ;Tjx? Pj+ 36\gfx?;Fu x'G5 .
 "In any unit, system, process, event, though, natural law, there is relative association of the outer opposite set of phenomena, with inner other opposite  sets of relative essence or phenomena, dynamically again"            
"Dialectics is nothing more than the science of the general laws of motion and development of nature, human society and thought." (Engels, Anti-Dühring.)
The dialectical method of thinking already had a long existence before Marx and Engels developed it scientifically as a means of understanding the evolution of human society.
The ancient Greeks produced some great dialectical thinkers, including Plato, Zenon and Aristotle. As early as 500 B.C., Heraclitus advanced the idea that "everything is and is not, for everything is in flux, is constantly changing, constantly coming into being and passing away". And further, "all things flow, all change. It is impossible to enter twice into one and the same stream". This statement already contains the fundamental conception of dialectics that everything in nature is in a constant state of change, and that this change unfolds through a series of contradictions.
"...the great basic thought that the world is not to be comprehended as a complex of ready made things, but as a complex of processes, in which things apparently stable, no less than their mental images in our heads, concepts go through an uninterrupted change of coming into being and passing away." (Engels, Anti-Dühring,)
"For dialectical philosophy nothing is final, absolute, and sacred. It reveals the transitory character of everything and in everything: nothing can endure before it except the uninterrupted process of becoming and of passing away, of endless ascendancy from the lower to the higher. And dialectical philosophy is nothing more than the mere reflection of this process in the thinking brain."
DIALECTICAL –METHOD OF RESEARCH Rkdhaugoda's key law of dialectics cg';f/ M–

æs'g}klg OsfO{, k|0ffnL, k|lqmof, 36gf, a:t', ;f]rfO{cfbL s'/fx?df aflxl/ ljk/Lt tTjx? Pj+ 36\gfx?sf] ;fk]IfLt cg'kflts ;DaGw km]/L csf]{ leqL ljleGg ljkl/t tTjx? Pj+ 36\gfx? ;Fu x'G5 . Æ
"In any system, event, object, process, thought, natural law, there is connection of the outer opposite set of phenomena which are again associated reciprocally with Inner other opposite set of phenomena, dynamically".
 A    ------------------------- B

 B aflx/L ljkl/t 36\gfx? Ps cfsf{df cGof]Gofl>t ;DalGwt x'G5g\ . Ps csf{df ;fk]lIfs ?kdf ?kfGt/0f, ldl>ttf, dfqfTds kl/jt{gaf6 u'0ffTds kl/jt{g x'G5 . af:tjdf logLx?sf] ?kfGt/0fdf e'ldsf v]Ng] leqL csf]{ ljkl/t tTjx?sf] cl:tTj x'G5 . h;nfO{ xfdL TotL Wofg lbPsf x'b}gf} h:tf] X / Y b'O{ leqL ljkl/t ;f/ tTjx? x'g\ . oL b'O{sf] ;fk]lIfs dfqfdf vf; kl/jt{gn] g} aflx/L b'O{ ljkl/tx?sf] vf; ?kfGt/0fsf] cj:yf b]vfpb5 cyf{t lj1fgdf olx cfGtl/s ljkl/t tTjx?sf] ;DaGw Pj+   lgodx?sf] kQf nufpg] sfd clt dxTjk'0f{ x'G5 .
The powerful inductive force for developing of scientific cognition is the laws of dialectics.
Dialectics is the area where conscious, intentional coincidence of the inductive and the deductive moments takes place, the two constituting indissolubly linked, and, mutually assuming moments of question/enquiry investigation for breakthrough thinking E.g.
Dialectics teaches us for making questions or breakthrough thinking on  rationality and effectiveness of current systems,events,knowledge, practices and problems.For an example the  so called advanced modern medicine, following a critical analysis of its ineffectiveness on treating so many diseases and its philosophy,and making a better options for previous metaphysical philosophy, with evidence bases and  scientific philosophical grounded.
The definition of Health given by WHO( developed by metaphysical groups of health experts  in 1948) , “IS NOT A OBJECTIVE REALITY AND VERY VERY NARROW AND UNSCIENTIFIC ,BUT ALSO JUST OPPOSITE OF REALITY”.
This is a sort of development of scientific cognition, a scientific abstract which may be real concreate, after multiaxial methodological analysis of current medical practices and its background philosophy.Its an ascent of scientific abstract to scientific concrete concept.which might be a new concrete concept, and inevitablely brings changes in the field of management of Health and Deasese in the world.

Relation Between Knowledge and Practice, 

·         Marxism is not a dogma but a guide to action, a scientific methodology.
·          Dialectical materialism regards man's activity in production as the most fundamental practical activity, the determinant of all his other activities. Man's knowledge depends mainly on his activity in material production, through which he comes gradually to understand the phenomena, the properties and the laws of nature, and the relations between himself and nature; and through his activity in production he also gradually comes to understand, in varying degrees, certain relations that exist between man and man.
·         Man's social practice is not confined to activity in production, but takes many other forms--class struggle, political life, scientific and artistic pursuits; in short, as a social being, man participates in all spheres of the practical life of society. Thus man, in varying degrees, comes to know the different relations between man and man, not only through his material life but also through his political and cultural life (both of which are intimately bound up with material life).
·         In human society activity in production develops step by step from a lower to a higher level and that consequently man's knowledge, whether of nature or of society, also develops step by step from a lower to a higher level, that is, from the shallower to the deeper, from the one-sided to the many-sided. For a very long period in history, men were necessarily confined to a one-sided understanding of the history of society because, for one thing, the bias of the exploiting classes always distorted history and, for another, the small scale of production limited man's outlook.
·         Man's social practice alone is the criterion of the truth of his knowledge of the external world. What actually happens is that man's knowledge is verified only when he achieves the anticipated results in the process of social practice (material production, class struggle or scientific experiment). If a man wants to succeed in his work, that is, to achieve the anticipated results, he must bring his ideas into correspondence with the laws of the objective external world; if they do not correspond, he will fail in his practice. After he fails, he draws his lessons, corrects his ideas to make them correspond to the laws of the external world, and can thus turn failure into success; this is what is meant by "failure is the mother of success" and "a fall into the pit, a gain in your wit".
·         The dialectical-materialist theory of knowledge places practice in the primary position, holding that human knowledge can in no way be separated from practice and repudiating all the erroneous theories which deny the importance of practice or separate knowledge from practice. Thus Lenin said, "Practice is higher than (theoretical) knowledge, for it has not only the dignity of universality, but also of immediate actuality."
·         The truth of any knowledge or theory is determined not by subjective feelings, but by objective results in social practice.
·         Only social practice can be the criterion of truth. The standpoint of practice is the primary and basic standpoint in the dialectical materialist theory of knowledge. 
·         In the process of practice, man at first sees only the phenomenal sidethe separate aspects, the external relations of things
·         The perceptual stage of cognition, namely, the stage of sense perceptions and impressions called 1ST STAGE OF KNOWLEDGE. At this stage, man cannot as yet form concepts, which are deeper, or draw logical conclusions.
·         As social practice continues, things that give rise to man's sense perceptions and impressions in the course of his practice are repeated many timesthen a sudden change (leap) takes place in the brain in the process of cognition, and concepts are formed. Concepts are no longer the phenomena, the separate aspects and the external relations of things; they grasp the essence, the totality and the internal relations of things. Between concepts and sense perceptions there is not only a quantitative but also a qualitative difference. Proceeding further, by means of judgement and inference one is able to draw logical conclusions, refers to man's use of concepts in the brain to form judgements and inferences. This is the second stage of cognition.This stage of conception, judgement and inference is the more important stage in the entire process of knowing a thing; it is the stage of rational knowledge. The real task of knowing is, through perception, to arrive at thought, to arrive step by step at the comprehension of the internal contradictions of objective things, of their laws and of the internal relations between one process and another, that is, to arrive at logical knowledge. To repeat, logical knowledge differs from perceptual knowledge in that perceptual knowledge pertains to the separate aspects, the phenomena and the external relations of things, whereas logical knowledge takes a big stride forward to reach the totality, the essence and the internal relations of things and discloses the inner contradictions in the surrounding world. Therefore, logical knowledge is capable of grasping the development of the surrounding world in its totality, in the internal relations of all its aspects.
·         This dialectical-materialist theory of the process of development of knowledge, basing itself on practice and proceeding from the shallower to the deeper, was never worked out by anybody before the rise of Marxism.
·          Marxist materialism solved this problem correctly for the first time, pointing out both materialistically and dialectically the deepening movement of cognition, the movement by which man in society progresses from perceptual knowledge to logical knowledge in his complex, constantly recurring practice of production and class struggle.
·          Lenin said, "The abstraction of matter, of a law of nature, the abstraction of value, etc., in short, all scientific (correct, serious, not absurd) abstractions reflect nature more deeply, truly and relative completely."
·          In the process of cognition , it has own characteristics, with knowledge manifesting itself as perceptual at the lower stage and logical at the higher stage, but that both are stages in an integrated process of cognition.
·         The perceptual and the rational are qualitatively different, but are not divorced from each other; they are unified on the basis of practice.
·         Our practice proves that what is perceived cannot at once be comprehended and that only what is comprehended can be more deeply perceived.
·         Perception only solves the problem of phenomena; theory alone can solve the problem of essence. The solving of both these problems is not separable in the slightest degree from practice.
·          In feudal society it was impossible to know the laws of capitalist society in advance because capitalism had not yet emerged, the relevant practice was lacking.
·         If you want to know a certain thing or a certain class of things directly, you must personally participate in the practical struggle to change reality, to change that thing or class of things, for only thus can you come into contact with them as phenomena; only through personal participation in the practical struggle to change reality can you uncover the essence of that thing or class of things and comprehend them. This is the path to knowledge which every man actually travels, though some people, deliberately distorting matters, argue to the contrary. The most ridiculous person in the world is the "know all" who picks up a smattering of hearsay knowledge and proclaims himself "the world's Number One authority"; this merely shows that he has not taken a proper measure of himself. Knowledge is a matter of science, and no dishonesty or conceit whatsoever is permissible..
·         If you want knowledge, you must take part in the practice of changing reality. If you want to know the taste of a pear, you must change the pear by eating it yourself.
·         If you want to know the structure and properties of the atom, you must make physical and chemical experiments to change the state of the atom. If you want to know the theory and methods of revolution, you must take part in revolution. All genuine knowledge originates in direct experience.
·         But one cannot have direct experience of everything; as a matter of fact, most of our knowledge comes from indirect experience, for example, all knowledge from past times and foreign lands. To our ancestors and to foreigners, such knowledge was--or is--a matter of direct experience, and this knowledge is reliable if in the course of their direct experience the requirement of "scientific abstraction", spoken of by Lenin, was--or is--fulfilled and objective reality scientifically reflected, otherwise it is not reliable.
·         Hence a man's knowledge consists only of two parts, that which comes from direct experience and that which comes from indirect experience. Moreover, what is indirect experience? It is direct experience for other people. Consequently, considered as a whole, knowledge of any kind is inseparable from direct experience.
·         All knowledge originates in perception of the objective external world through man's physical sense organs. Anyone who denies such perception, denies direct experience, or denies personal participation in the practice that changes reality is not a materialist.
·         That is why the "know-all" is unreasonable. There is an old Chinese saying, "How can you catch tiger cubs without entering the tiger's lair?" This saying holds true for man's practice and it also holds true for the theory of knowledge. There can be no knowledge apart from practice.
·         To make valued the dialectical-materialist movement of cognition arising on the basis of the practice which changes reality--to make clear the gradually deepening movement of cognition—
·         Thus it can be seen that the first step in the process of cognition is contact with the objects of the external world; this belongs to the stage of perception. The second step is to synthesize the data of perception by arranging and reconstructing them; this belongs to the stage of conception, judgement and inference. It is only when the data of perception are very rich (not fragmentary) and correspond to reality (are not illusory) that they can be the basis for forming correct concepts and theories.
·         Here two important points must be emphasized.
·         The first point, which has been stated before but should be repeated here, is the dependence of rational knowledge upon perceptual knowledge. The rational is reliable precisely because it has its source in sense perceptions, other wise it would be like water without a source, a tree without roots, subjective, self-engendered and unreliable. As to the sequence in the process of cognition, perceptual experience comes first; we stress the significance of social practice in the process of cognition precisely because social practice alone can give rise to human knowledge and it alone can start man on the acquisition of perceptual experience from the objective world. For a person who shuts his eyes, stops his ears and totally cuts himself off from the objective world there can be no such thing as knowledge. Knowledge begins with experience--this is the materialism of the theory of knowledge.
·         The second point is that knowledge needs to be deepened, that the perceptual stage of knowledge needs to be developed to the rational stage--this is the dialectics of the theory of knowledge.

·         To think that knowledge can stop at the lower, perceptual stage and that perceptual knowledge alone is reliable while rational knowledge is not, would be to repeat the historical error of "empiricism" e.g knowledge of steroids and its imperical uses in medical science. This theory makes a mistake in failing to understand that, although the data of perception reflect certain realities in the objective world, they are merely one-sided and superficial, reflecting things incompletely and not reflecting their essence. Fully to reflect a thing in its totality, to reflect its essence, to reflect its inherent laws, it is necessary through the exercise of thought to reconstruct the rich data of sense perception, discarding the dross and selecting the essential, eliminating the false and retaining the true, proceeding from the one to the other and from the outside to the inside, in order to form a system of concepts and theories--it is necessary to make a leap from perceptual to rational knowledge. Such reconstructed knowledge is not emptier or more unreliable; on the contrary, whatever has been scientifically reconstructed in the process of cognition, on the basis of practice, reflects objective reality, as Lenin said, more deeply, more truly, more fully. As against this, vulgar "practical men" respect experience but despise theory, and therefore cannot have a comprehensive view of an entire objective process, lack clear direction and long-range perspective, and are complacent over occasional successes and glimpses of the truth.
·         Rational knowledge (higher or dialectical or logical knowledge) depends upon perceptual knowledge ( formal –general- knowledge) and perceptual knowledge remains to be developed into rational knowledge-- this is the dialectical-materialist theory of knowledge.
·         The dialectical-materialist movement of knowledge from the perceptual to the rational holds true for a minor process of cognition (for instance, knowing a single thing or task) as well as for a major process of cognition (for instance, knowing a whole society or a revolution).
·         But the movement of knowledge does not end here. If the dialectical-materialist movement of knowledge were to stop at rational knowledge, only half the problem would be dealt with. And as far as Marxist philosophy is concerned, only the less important half at that. Marxist philosophy holds that the most important problem does not lie in understanding the laws of the objective world and thus being able to explain it, but in applying the knowledge of these laws actively to change the world.
·         From the Marxist viewpoint, theory is important, and its importance is fully expressed in Lenin's statement, "Without revolutionary theory there can be no revolutionary movement."
·          Dialectical materialism emphasizes the importance of theory precisely and only because it can guide action. If we have a correct theory but merely rubbish about it, pigeonhole it and do not put it into practice, then that theory, however good, is of no significance.
·         Knowledge begins with practice, and theoretical knowledge is acquired through practice and must then return to practice. The active function of knowledge manifests itself not only in the active leap from perceptual to rational knowledge, but--and this is more important--it must manifest itself in the leap from rational knowledge to revolutionary practice called-3rd stage of knowledge.
·         The knowledge which grasps the laws of the world, must be redirected to the practice of changing the world, must be applied an additional in the practice of production, in the practice of revolutionary class struggle and revolutionary national struggle and in the practice of scientific experiment. This is the process of testing and developing theory, the continuation of the whole process of cognition.
·         Dialectical materialism is universally true because it is impossible for anyone to escape from its domain in his practice. The history of human knowledge tells us that the truth of many theories is incomplete and that this incompleteness is remedied through the test of practice. Many theories are erroneous and it is through the test of practice that their errors are corrected. That is why practice is the criterion of truth and why "the standpoint of life, of practice, should be first and fundamental in the theory of knowledge".
·         Theory becomes purposeless if it is not connected with revolutionary practice, just as practice gropes in the dark if its path is not illumined by revolutionary theory.  
·         When we get to this point, is the movement of knowledge completed? Our answer is: it is and yet it is not. When men in society throw themselves into the practice of changing a certain objective process (whether natural or social) at a certain stage of its development, they can, as a result of the reflection of the objective process in their brains and the exercise of their subjective activity, advance their knowledge from the perceptual to the rational, and create ideas, theories, plans or programmes which correspond in general to the laws of that objective process. They then apply these ideas, theories, plans or programmes in practice in the same objective process. And if they can realize the aims they have in mind, that is, if in that same process of practice they can translate, or on the whole translate, those previously formulated ideas, theories, plans or programmes into fact, then the movement of knowledge may be considered completed with regard to this particular process.
·         . Every process, whether in the sphere of nature or of society, progresses and develops by reason of its internal contradiction and struggle, and the movement of human knowledge should also progress and develop along with it. As far as social movements are concerned, true revolutionary leaders must not only be good at correcting their ideas, theories, plans or programmes when errors are discovered, should be crrected according to time, place and psychology of people, they must ensure that the proposed new revolutionary tasks and new working programmes correspond to the new changes in the situation.

·         Idealism and mechanical materialism, opportunism and adventurism, are all characterized by the breach between the subjective and the objective, by the separation of knowledge from practice.

·         Dialectical materialism theory of knowledge, characterized as it is by scientific social practice, cannot but resolutely oppose these wrong ideologies. Marxists recognize that in the absolute and general process of development of the universe, the development of each particular process is relative, and that hence, in the endless flow of absolute truth, man's knowledge of a particular process at any given stage of development is only relative truth. The sum total of innumerable relative truths constitutes absolute truth.
·         The development of an objective process is full of contradictions and struggles, and so is the development of the movement of human knowledge. All the dialectical movements of the objective world can sooner or later be reflected in human knowledge.
·         In social practice, the process of coming into being, developing and passing away is infinite, and so is the process of coming into being, developing and passing away in human knowledge. As man's practice which changes objective reality in accordance with given ideas, theories, plans or programmes, advances further and further, his knowledge of objective reality likewise becomes deeper and deeper.

·          “Discover the truth through practice, and again through practice verify and develop the truth. Start from perceptual knowledge and actively develop it into rational knowledge; then start from rational knowledge and actively guide revolutionary practice to change both the subjective and the objective world. Practice, knowledge, again practice, and again knowledge. This form repeats itself in endless cycles, and with each cycle the content of practice and knowledge rises to a higher level. Such is the whole of the dialectical-materialist theory of knowledge, and such is the dialectical-materialist theory of the unity of knowing and doing.”

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